DESIGN OF A CONCRETE ELEVATED WATER TANK (50,000 CAPACITY)

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DESIGN OF A CONCRETE ELEVATED WATER TANK (50,000 CAPACITY)

 

BY

HE/000

HE/0000

A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING,
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

SEPTEMBER, 2020.
DECLARATION
We hereby declare that this project is our original work and has not been previously submitted either in part or full to any institution for the award of certificate or degree.

…………………………….. ……………………
Date

…………………………….. …………………
Date

 

 

 

CERTIFICATION
The Board of Examiner Declared as follows: that this is the partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of Higher National Diploma in Civil Engineering Technology.

…………………………………….. ………………………………….
Wokoma T.T.T Signature/Date
(Project Supervisor)

……………………………………… ………………………………….
Signature/ Date
(Project Coordinator)

……………………………………… ………………………………….
Engr. Ugo Kingsley Signature/Date
(Head of Department)

……………………………………… ………………………………
Engr. A. B. Ledogo . Signature/ Date
(Chairman Board of Examiners)

 

DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to God Almighty for His protection, guidance and provision throughout the cause of our studies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We sincerely thank the Almighty God for His grace and mercies towards us. We also appreciate the contributions of our supervisor Wokoma T.T.T who was spectacular in making sure this project is a success. We also appreciate the project coordinator Engr. L. B. Ledogo and not forgetting the Head of Department, Engr Ugo Kingsley and all the lecturers and students of Civil Engineering Department.

ABSTRACT
Water tanks are used to store water and supply safe drinking water. With the increase in population, water consumption and demand has increased drastically. The design of an elevated concrete water tank with a capacity of 50,000 was examined in this work. It was assumed that the consumptive water/cap/person is 120liters, with 5 persons per building and a total of 1000 persons in the area will use the facility. Limit state design approach was adopted with the consideration of the tank being a water tight structure. Again based on the limit state design concept the tank capacity was critically examined in the height of its serviceability like cracks, deflections etc. the outcome of the structural design in chapter 4 shows that the tank is satisfactory with respect to its design purpose. All water retaining structures should be properly designed based on standards and specifications and water storage tanks should be washed and cleaned at least after every 6 months in order to prevent germs, fungae and algae etc.

.

 

 

 

CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of contents vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Statement of Problem
Objectives of Study
Justification of Study
Significance of Study
Scope of Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The basic need for water
2.3 Sources of water
2.4 Water storage tanks
2.5 Water quantity estimation
2.6 Consumption of water
2.7 Fire Fighting Demand
2.8 Factors Affecting Per Capita Demand
2.9 Demand in fluctuation rate
2.10 Population Design & Period Forecast
2.11 Population Forecasting Methods
2.12 Classification of Tanks
2.13 Reinforced Concrete Design Philosophy
2.14 Serviceability Limit State
2.15 Ultimate Limit State
2.16 Materials
2.16.1Concrete
2.16.2Reinforcement
2.16.3Aggregate
2.16.4Loads

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Description of Study
3.2 Experimental Procedures
3.3 Design Considerations

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results
4.2 Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
References
Appendices

 

 

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Water is considered as the source of living for every creation as it is a crucial element for healthy living, safe drinking water is one of the basic elements for human to sustain a healthy life, high demand for safe and clean water is rising day by day as one cannot live without water. Thus, it becomes necessary to store water. (Charles & Manning 2007)
Water is a basic need for every human being. Most of the world population still does not have centralized water supply with connections to individual households. According to World Health Organization (WHO), roughly 2.4 billion of the world’s population does not have access to an improved sanitation facility and about 1.1 billion people does not have access to safe drinking water. The provision of safe and adequate drinking water to urban population continues to be one of the major challenging task.

A water tank is used to store water to tide over the daily requirement, water tanks are used to provide storage of water for use in many applications such as drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other uses. (Shirima, 2010).
One of the most important needs of any community development is safe and adequate supply of potable water but unfortunately, there is a shortage of clean water supply in rural areas of many developing nations. A large percentage of the rural areas in such countries still rely on man-made wells, natural springs and rivers and of recent limited pipe water schemes. Majority of such sources are not at economical distances from the dwellings. The effectiveness of the piped water supply depends on the availability of water storage tanks (Shirima, 2010).
In small towns or in rapidly growing urban areas, it is common place to use concrete water tanks of 2 to 50 mega litres or greater ‘’header’’ or ‘’surge’’ tanks to store water pumped from a remote source. The stored water is then distributed to a specific community at a generally constant head. (Patentscope, 2011)
Reinforced concrete elevated water tanks are used to store and supply safe drinking water. With the rapid speed of urbanization, demand for drinking water has increased drastically. Also, due to shortage of electricity, it is not possible to supply water through pumps at peak hours. In such situations, elevated water tanks become necessary.
As demand for water tanks continues, it is imperative that these water tanks are designed in line with design criteria and specifications. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Water tanks are used to store water and supply safe drinking water, with the increase in population, water consumption and demand has also increased drastically. This now makes the demand for concrete water on the rise especially in urban areas. Since this demand will continue as long as human existence continues, there is need for accurate, efficient and durable concrete tank that will stand the test of time.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
To understand the basics of concrete elevated water tank.
To verify guidelines for the design of liquid retaining structure using specifications and codes.
To understand the design philosophy of safe and economic use of concrete water tank.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
By design, a concrete elevated water tank should do no harm to the water. Water is susceptible to a number of ambient negative influences, including bacteria, viruses, algae, changes in pH and accumulation of minerals, gas. The contamination can come from a variety of origins including piping, tank construction materials, animal and bird feces, mineral and gas intrusion. A correctly designed water tank works to address and mitigate these negative effects. It is imperative that all criteria and specifications are followed during designs.

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1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
This study is concerned with the design of a concrete elevated water tank using best practical solutions, specifications and methods that must be followed in order to produce a structure that is efficient and durable to fulfill its intended purpose.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this research is restricted to the design of concrete elevated water tank (50,000 CAPACITY).

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organizations, community, individuals via s system of pumps and pipes. Water supply system involves infrastructure for the collection, transmission, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for public needs such as firefighting and street flushing. Of all municipal services, provision of portable water is perhaps the most vital. People depend on water for drinking, cooking, washing, carrying away wastes, and other domestic needs.
Water supply systems must also meet requirements for public, commercial, and industrial activities. In all cases, the water must fulfill both quality and quantity requirements.
2.2 THE BASIC NEED FOR WATER
According to national and international guidelines, the quantity of water available to all people should be 50-100 liters per person per day, or an absolute minimum of 20 liters per person per day (UNDP, 2006) The water must be safe drinking and other household uses. Drinking must be free from pathogenic (disease-causing) micro-organisms (tiny living organisms that you can only see with a microscope), and free from chemical and physical contaminants that constitute a danger to a person’s health. It must also be free from color and odor. Water must be within safe physical reach, in or near the house, school or health facility. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the water source has to be within 1000m of the home and collection time should not exceed 30 minutes (UNDESA 2014)
As well as bee physically accessible, water should also be reasonably priced and affordable for everyone. Buying water should not reduce a person’s capacity to buy other essential goods. This means that, the cost of water must be kept low and essential amounts of water must sometimes be provided free.

 

2.3 SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY
The various sources of water can be classified into two categories:
Surface sources, such as
Ponds and lakes
Streams and rivers
Storage reservoirs and
Oceans
Sub-surface sources, or underground sources such as
Springs
Infiltration wells and
Wells and tube-wells.

2.4 WATER STORAGE TANKS
Water storage tank is a reservoir to store water for industrial, home use and firefighting, tanks made from steel have the potential to corrode and leak if not properly protected internally from water containing chlorine and externally from soil.
Water storage tanks are available in many shapes and sizes, they can be vertical, horizontal, underground and portable, and can be made from plastic steel, fiberglass, stone or concrete. Water tank leakage and corrosion as well as bacterial growth are threat to the tank.
Over the years, tank systems weaken or become damaged if corrosion is not controlled, uncontrolled corrosion results in holes or possible structural failure of the tank, leading to the release of stored liquid into the environment. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
In steel water tanks, corrosion occurs due to current passing from one point to another on the tanks inner surface. The tank walls act as an anode where the water acts as cathode, the anode loses electrons, thereby corroding the tank, if left untreated, this can cause water discoloration and leaks from the tank wall. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
The actual column portion is designed to withstand water pressure live load and self-weight of different parts. The column supports design to resist wind forces and earth forces in addition to the force transferred from the tank to prevent or minimize its impervious concrete of minimum grade M25-35 must be used as the design for water retaining structures. (syal and geoel,1990)
It is almost possible to stand any object on its center of gravity but the primary question is whether it is able to withstand some application of forces or loading. In the way that nature provides adequate stability for a heavy tall tree by means of its root even when the tree is under serious wind forces give rise to the type of foundation design to be considered for elevated tank design to provide stability under.
Its self-load
External loading condition
Various soil or ground condition
These condition in this project could be clearly seen from the review of structural failures of different structures within and outside Nigeria: in the early 1960‘s elevated water tank were constructed in four secondary schools in the eastern Nigeria by some Engineering firms-soon after all but one of the tank titled and failed-some expert studies revealed that the failures were due to inadequate design. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
2.5 WATER QUANTITY ESTIMATION
The quantity of water required for municipal uses for which the water supply scheme has to be designed requires the following data:
Water consumption rate (per capita demand liters per day per head)
Population to be served
Quantity =Per demand × population
2.6 CONSUMPTION RATE OF WATER
It is very difficult to precisely access the quantity of water demanded by the public, since there are many variable factors affecting water consumption.
The various types of water demand which a city may have, may be broken into the following class:

Water Consumption for Various Purposes
Fig 2.1
S/No
Types of Consumption
Normal Range (lit/capita/day)
Average
%

1.
Domestic consumption
65-300
160
35

2.
Industrial and commercial consumption
45-450
135
35

3.
Public including fire demand uses
20-90
45
10

4.
Losses and waste
45-150
62
25

Source: International water management institute
2.7 FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND
The per capita fire demand is very less on an average basis but the rate at which the water is required is very large. The rate of fire demand is sometimes treated as a function of population and is worked out from the following empirical formulae:

 

Fig 2.2
S/no
Authority
Formulae (P in thousands)
Q for 1 Lakh population

1.
American Insurance Association
Q(L/mm) = 46370 ŌP (1-0.01 ŌP)
41760

2.
Kuching’s formula
Q(L/mm) = 3182 ŌP
31800

3.
Freeman’s formula
Q(L/mm) = 1136.5 (P/5 + 10)
35050

4.
Ministry of urban development manual formula
Q(kilo liters/d) = 100 ŌP for P > 50000
31623

Source: United Nation Environment Program (UNEP)
2.8 FACTORS AFFECTING PER CAPITA DEMAND
Size of the city: Per capita demand for big cities is generally large as compared to that for smaller towns as big cities have served houses
Presence of industries
Climatic conditions
Habits of economic status
Quality of water
Pressure in the distribution system
Cost of water
Efficiency of water work’s administration: Leaks in water mains and services and unauthorized use of water can be kept to a minimum by surveys.
Policy of metering and charging method: Water tax is charged in two different ways: On the basis meter reading and on the basis of certain fixed monthly rate.

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2.9 DEMAND IN FLUCTUATION RATE
Average Daily Capita Demand = Quantity Required in 12 months (365 × Population). If this average demand is supplied at all the times, it will not be sufficient to meet the fluctuations.
Seasonal Variation: The demand peaks during summer, fire break out are generally more in summer, increasing demand, so there is seasonal variation.
Daily Variation: Depends on the activity, people Draw out more water on Sundays and festival days, thus increasing demand on these days.
Hourly Variation: Are very important as they have a wide range during active household workings hours i.e. from six to ten in the morning and four to eight in the evening, the bulk of the daily requirement is taken. During other hours, the requirement is negligible. Moreover, if a fire breaks out, a huge quantity of water is required to be supplied during short duration, necessitating the need for a maximum rate of hourly supply.
So, an adequate quantity of water must be available to meet the peak demand, to meet all the fluctuations, the supply pipes, services reservoirs and distribution pipes must be properly proportioned. The water is supplied by pumping directly and the pumps and distribution system must be designed to meet the peak demand. The effect of monthly variation influences the design of storage reservoirs and the hourly variations influences the design of pumps and service reservoirs. As the population decreases, the fluctuation rate increases.
Maximum Daily Demand = 1.8 × average daily demand
Maximum hourly demand of maximum day i.e. peak demand
= 1.5× average hourly demand
= 1.5× average daily demand/24
= 1.5× (1.8 × average daily demand)/24
= 2.7× average daily demand/24
= 2.7× annual average hourly demand

2.10 POPULATION DESIGN AND PERIOD FORECASTING
This quantity should be worked out with due provision for the estimated requirement of the future. The future period for which a provision is made in the water supply scheme is known as the design period.
Design period is estimated based on the following:
Useful life of the component, considering obsolescence, wear, tears etc.
Expandability aspect
Anticipated rate of growth of population, including industrial, commercial developments and migration -immigration
Available resources
Performance of the system during initial period
2.11 POPULATION FORECASTING METHODS
The various methods adopted for estimating future populations are given below, the particular method to be adopted for a particular case or for a particular city depends largely on the factors discussed in the methods, and the selection is left to the discretion and intelligence of the designer.
Incremental increase method
Decreasing rate of Growth method
Simple graphical method
Ratio method
Logistic curve method
Arithmetic increase method
Geometric increase method

2.12 CLASSIFICATION OF TANKS
Classification based on three heads
Tanks resting on ground
Elevated tanks supported on staging
Underground tanks
2. Classification based on shapes
Circular tanks
Rectangular tanks
Spherical tanks
Intze tanks
Circular tanks with conical bottom
2.13 CLEANING A WATER HOLDING TANK
Delivered water should be portable (safe for human consumption) and obtained from an approved source. It is necessary to clean and disinfect your water holding tanks at least once a year or more often, if required this is to remove algae (plant growth which produces bad tastes and odors) silt and bacteria which may be harmful

METHODS OF CLEANING
Empty the tank
Scrub or pressure wash the interior walls to remove dirt and grime
Rinse out the tank
Mix a solution of household bleach and water (1 table spoon or 15ml of bleach for every gallon of water)
Scrub or pressure wash the interior walls of the tank with this solution and leave it sit for 2 hours.
After 2 hours, thoroughly rinse the tank with clean water
Refill with portable water
2.14 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
Modern reinforced concrete design methods also follow the limit state design philosophy of BS8110. It is essential to make, that in any type of design, serviceability and ultimate limit state are satisfied.
The introduction of the limit state philosophy provides a word logical basis in determining factors of safety. The limit sate method enables the possible modes of failure of a structure to be identified and investigated so that particular premature form of failure maybe prevented.
2.15 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
The serviceability limit state is that of cracking and this controlled by limiting the flexural tensile stresses under service load condition, BS8110 recognizes three classes 1, 2,3.
In the case of serviceability limit of deflection, BS8110 give some limited guidance on acceptable levels of deflection. These deflections in the standard are based on experience and check compliance, it essential to carry out a simple elastic analysis.
2.15.1 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE
There are two principal ultimate limit states which are flexural and shear. In both cases, the design loads are multiply by the appropriate partial factors of safety for a given load in clauses 2.4,3 BS8110. In the partial factors of safety are taken as 1.4&1.6 for dead and imposed loads and wind load, a partial factor of safety of 1.2 is used. This is adopted in the design of water retaining structures.
2.16 MATERIALS
2.16.1 CONCRETE
When designing water retaining structures, concrete of grade 25-35 are used. It is not desirable to use rapid hardening cement because of it greater evolution of heat which tends to increase shrinkage cracking.
2.16.2 REINFORCEMENT
The tensile stress in the reinforcement in liquid structures are relatively low It is usual to specify high strength steel with ribbed or deformed surface. Reinforcement in concrete is noticed from corrosion by the alkalinity in cement.
2.16.3 AGGREGATE
The maximum size of aggregate must be chosen in relation to the thickness of the structural member.

2.16.4 LOADS
Liquid retaining structures are subjected to hydrostatic fluid pressure soil pressure temperature gradients dead weight loads and dynamic loading arising from earth quake effect.
CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY
This chapter mainly involves the method with which the design was carried out. A structure designed to retain water must fulfill the requirement of strength, durability, deflection and freedom from excessive cracking in addition to requirements of being leak proof.
3.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Concrete members of the tank must be designed against structural failure.
All analysis shall be done based on specifications/codes.
Reinforcements shall be provided for durability.
Concrete mix weaker than M20 should not be used.
The minimum quantity of cement in the concrete mix shall not be less than 30KN/m2
Adequate compaction, especially by vibration is necessary.
Limit state design was followed as recommended by BS8110 of 2007
The retaining structure is based on the recommendation of BS8110 of 2007
Fy=410N/mm2
10. fcu=30N/mm2
3.3 CRITERIA FOR TANK CAPACITY
A tank is designed based on its intended purpose. There are factors that must be considered when designing a tank considering its shape and size on the basis of technical consideration and economic advantage which are as follows.
POPULATION: The population for which the structure is serving is getting from the population forecast. In this case, a population of 1000 persons and others are estimated to be accommodated in a small community at a given time.
ECONOMIC REASON: The financial states and the technological development of the area also affect the size and shape of the tank.
From the world Health organization (W.H.O), it is suggested that, 80 liters to 400 liters of water is required per capita demand per person day with a standard amount of about 150 liters per individual per day suggested.
For the purpose of this project, 120L/ht/day and population of 1000 will be used to determine the volume of the tank.
Therefore, the volume of the tank
1000 x 120 = 120,000 Liters = 120m3
For two days’ storage,
Tank volume = 2 x 120 = 240m3

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CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 RESULTS
DESIGN PARAMETERS
Total buildings = 200
Consumption rate =120lit/capital
Total number of person per building = 5
Height of tank above ground level = 9m
Depth of the tank =3m
Free board =0.5m
Top slab load per m2 =13.02KN/m2
Finishes =1.90KN/m2
Fy =410N/mm2
Fcu =30N/mm2
Overall thickness(h) =400mm
b =1000m
 =12m
400Plan Section
400 7200 400
300
4000
400
Cross Section
Overall thickness = 400mm
d = h – c –ø/2
d = 400-26-6
d = 368mm

Water pressure: assuming 4 full and designing for 1m wide
Pw =10 x 4KN/M2 = 40 KN/m per m run

 

Total 1day requirement =120 x 1000= 120,000liters =120cub.m
Using a tank of 3m deep, the area of tank required will be 7.2 x 6.8m
Hence providing 7.2 x 6.8 x 4m with 0.5m as free board.

 

 

 

Fig 4.1.1
REFERENCE
CALCULATION

Area of tank = 7.2 x 6.8 x 4
Total population = 5 x 200 =1000

Total water required per/day= 120 x 1000
=120,000 = 120cub

Water pressure on wall
M=40 x 1.6x (40 + 0.40) x1/2
3 2
= 432KN.m

K = M 432 x106
bd2fcu 1000 x 3682 x30

K = 432000000
4062720000
K = 0.10

La = 0.5+ 0.25 – K = 0.5+ 0.25 – 0.10
0.9 0.9

0.5+ 0.25-0.1

 

0.5 + 0.15

 

La = 0.8

 

Z = la x d = 0.8 x 368

Z = 294mm

Deflection = M = 432 x106 = 432000000
bd2 1000 x 3682 135424000

D = 3.19

Ast = M = 432 x106 =432000000
0.95fyz 0.95x410x294 114513

Ast = 377mm

Area provided 377mm

Minimum steel reinforcement

= 0.24%bh = 0.24x1000x400 = 960mm2
100

Area of transverse reinforcement (high yield)

0.13%bh = 0.13x1000x400 = 52000
100 100
= 520

Checking for thermal cracking
As = 377
bd 1000×368
= 0.001

 

and
x = 0.30d
=0.03×368
= 110mm

Moment at SLS = 432
1.6
= 270KN.m
Fs = M
As (d-x/3)

= 270×106
377(368-110/3)

= 270000000
124937.8

Fs = 2161.1N/mm2

Fs > 85N/mm2, certified okay.

Wall weight pressure (P)

4.0 + 0.4 = 4.4
= 4.4 x 0. 4 x 24 x 1.4

= 59.1KN/m

 

Top slab load per m2= 13.02KN/m2

Finishes say = 1.90KNm2

Total = 14.92KN/m2

Spanning = Ly/Lx
= 7.2
6.8

= 1.06

Allowances for wall finishes

Water load = 4.0 x 9.8×1.6 =62.72KN/m2

Bottom slab load = 0.4 x 24 x1.4 = 13.44KN/m2

Finishing = 1.06 x1.4 =1.48KN/m2

Total U.D.L = 77.64KN/m2

Say = 77KN/m2

Moment Support

M = 432 + 100 x 0.85 + 70 x 0.852 x 0.5

= 544. 8KN.m

K = M
bd2fcu

= 432×106 = 432000000
1000x3682x30 4062720000

K = 0.10

Ast = M = 432 x106 = 432000000
0.95fyz 0.95 x 410 x 294 114513

Ast = 377mm

Provide [email protected] c/c (377mm2)

 

OUTPUT

1000
120cub

 

=432KN.m

=0.10KN

 

 

 

=0.8

=294mm

=3.19mm

 

=377mm

 

=960mm2

 

=520mm2

 

0.001KN/m2

 

 

=110mm

 

=270KN.m

 

 

 

=2161.1N/mm2

 

 

= 59.1KN/m

 

=14.92kN/m

=1.06

 

 

 

 

77KN/m2

 

544.8KN.m

 

0.10

 

377mm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.2 DISCUSSION
The water tank was designed for 200 buildings in B.dere Gokana local Government area, with a consumption rate of 120 liters per capita and 5 people per building; with a tank situated at an elevation of 9m above the ground. With overall tank height =4.2m, fy =410mm2, fcu=30N/mm2, Q=12mm2, tank depth of 3m with the area of tank = 7.2 x 6.8 m and 0.5m as free board.
From the design, the result reveals the following: depth=368mm, water pressure =40KN/m per m. run, moment (M) = 432KN.m, K= 0.10, La = 0.8, Z= 294mm, Deflection = 3.19mm, Ast =377mm (Area provided = 377mm), Minimum steel reinforcement = 960mm2, Area of transverse reinforcement = 520mm2, moment at SLS = 270 KN.m, Fs = 2161.1N/mm2, wall weight pressure = 59.1KN/m, total top slab load = 14.92KN, water load = 62.72KN/m2, Moment support = 544. 8KN.m
To meet water tightness requirements, the reinforce concrete would be made dense heavy concrete of 25N/mm2 (1:1:5:3).
The depth of all foundation must be as shown on drawing or must be at a depth of 1.2m from existing ground level after the removal of vegetable topsoil. Also the engineer must erect the tank on a good firm soil approved.
Form works for any concrete members must be done after the minimum required members of days which the engineer must certify adequate.
Mass concrete blinding of mix (1:3:6) must be laid prior to raft slab placement.

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 CONCLUSION
One of the most important needs of any community development is safe and adequate supply of potable water but unfortunately, there is a shortage of clean water supply in rural areas of many developing nations. A large percentage of the rural areas in such countries still rely on man-made wells, natural springs and rivers and of recent limited pipe water schemes.
By design, a concrete elevated water tank should do no harm to the water. Water is susceptible to a number of ambient negative influences, including bacteria, viruses, algae, changes in pH and accumulation of minerals, gas. The contamination can come from a variety of origins including piping, tank construction materials, animal and bird feces, mineral and gas intrusion. A correctly designed water tank works to address and mitigate these negative effects. It is imperative that all criteria and specifications are followed during designs.
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
There should be continuous examination of reinforced concrete tanks under the effect of hydrodynamic pressure resulting from earthquake loading
Failures of tanks should be investigated by using computer programs that considers cracking and nonlinearity
Additional experimental study of wall specimens subjected to both axial tensions and combined axial compression is needed
All water retaining structures should be properly designed based on standards and specifications
Water storage tanks should be washed and cleaned at least after every 6 months in order to prevent germs, fungae, algae etc.

REFERENCES
Krishna Raju N. (2009), Structuring design and Reinforced concrete. 3rd edition Universities press, India.
Anchor, R.D (1992) “Design of liquid Retaining concrete structure
“London survey university press.

Dayaratnam P. (1986), Design of Reinforced concrete structures.
3rd edition, Oxford & IBH publishing co, Pvt limited.

Joshi S.M Dr. Deshmurh S.R (2014). “Dynamic analysis of elevated
rcc circular liquid storage tank” international journal of Research in Advent Technology. Vol 2, PP1-3

Krishna Raju N “Advanced Reinforced concrete design” 2nd
Edition 21`M. Bhandari and Karan deep singh, “Comparative study of design of water tank with reference to IS: 3370” IJETAE publication, Vol-4, issue-11, November 2014.

Manning, G.P (1967) “Reservoirs and tanks” London concrete
publications Limited

M. Kalani and S.A Salpekar, “A comparative study of different
methods of analysis for staging of elevated water tanks” Indian concrete Journal, July-August-1978, PP 210-216.
Slater, W.M (1985) “concrete water tanks in Ontano” Canadian
Journal of Civil Engineering Toronto

Victor O. Oyenuga simplified Reinforced concrete design” second
edition ISBN: 978-36217-7-7

Syal I.C, Goel A.K 2010. Reinforced concrete structures, 4th Reinforced Edition., S. Chand & Co, New Delhi.
APPENDICES

 

 

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